Long term use of opiate drugs (heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine and numerous synthetic morphine like substances) results in the down regulation of endorphin receptors. Abrupt withdrawal causes extreme craving for the drug which can be greatly reduced through the administration of NAD which binds to these endorphin receptors. In addiction the long term effects of cumulative oxidative stress are reduced.

Practitioners hope to work within National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines to withdraw patients from tranquillisers at a pace suited to each individual. They believe tailor-made protocols could help some withdraw in weeks rather than months and years.